The European Security Strategy adopted by the European Union on December 12, 2003 begins by saying: “Europe has never been so prosperous, so secure nor so free. The violence of the first half of the 20th Century has given way to a period of peace and stability unprecedented in European history”. This optimistic view was abruptly shattered only three months later. On March 11, 2004, Spain suffered the most distressing and traumatic terrorist attack that has ever occurred in Europe. Between 7:37 and 7:40 a.m., ten coordinated bombings in the commuter train system of Madrid killed 192 persons and injured 1,840 more, many of them injured for life. Among the fatalities, no suicide bombers were found. On July 7, 2005, four Islamist terrorists perpetrated a coordinated suicide attack in the city of London. Four explosions, in three trains and on a double-decker bus, killed 52 citizens in addition to the four suicides, and injured 700.
Asymmetric Threats- Nativaidad Carpinter
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